A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Non-pharmacological Methods to Manipulate Experimentally Induced Secondary Hypersensitivity
Structural and chiropractic
J Pain.2023 Jun 24;S1526-5900(23)00447-9
Gillian J Bedwell, Prince C Chikezie, Felicia T Siboza, Luyanduthando Mqadi, Andrew S C Rice, Peter R Kamerman, Romy Parker, Victoria J Madden
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of non-pharmacological manipulations on experimentally induced secondary hypersensitivity in pain-free humans. We investigated the magnitude (change/difference in follow-up ratings from pre-manipulation ratings) of secondary hypersensitivity (primary outcome), and surface area of secondary hypersensitivity (secondary outcome), in 27 studies representing 847 participants. Risk of bias assessment concluded most studies (23 of 27) had an unclear or high risk of performance and detection bias. Further, 2 (of 27) studies had a high risk of measurement bias. Datasets were pooled by the method of manipulation and outcome. The magnitude of secondary hypersensitivity was decreased by diverting attention, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, or emotional disclosure; increased by directing attention toward the induction site, nicotine deprivation, or negative suggestion; and unaffected by cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation or thermal change. Area of secondary hypersensitivity was decreased by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, emotional disclosure, cognitive behavioral therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, placebo analgesia, or spinal manipulation; increased by directing attention to the induction site, nicotine deprivation, or sleep disruption (in males only); and unaffected by cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation, thermal change, acupuncture, or electroacupuncture. Meta-analytical pooling was only appropriate for studies that used transcranial direct current stimulation or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, given the high clinical heterogeneity among the studies and unavailability of data. The evidence base for this question remains small. We discuss opportunities to improve methodological rigor including manipulation checks, structured blinding strategies, control conditions or time points, and public sharing of raw data. PERSPECTIVE: We described the effects of several non-pharmacological manipulations on experimentally induced secondary hypersensitivity in humans. By shedding light on the potential for non-pharmacological therapies to influence secondary hypersensitivity, it provides a foundation for the development and testing of targeted therapies for secondary hypersensitivity.