Basic science research related to chiropractic spinal adjusting: the state of the art and recommendations revisited
Structural and chiropractic
J Manipulative Physiol Ther.2006 Nov-Dec;29(9):726-61.
G Cramer, B Budgell, C Henderson, P Khalsa, J Pickar
Objective: The objectives of this white paper are to review and summarize the basic science literature relevant to spinal fixation (subluxation) and spinal adjusting procedures and to make specific recommendations for future research. Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, ICL, OSTMED, and MANTIS databases were searched by a multidisciplinary team for reports of basic science research (since 1995) related to spinal fixation (subluxation) and spinal adjusting (spinal manipulation). In addition, hand searches of the reference sections of studies judged to be important by the authors were also obtained. Each author used key words they determined to be most important to their field in designing their individual search strategy. Both animal and human studies were included in the literature searches, summaries, and recommendations for future research produced in this project. Discussion: The following topic areas were identified: anatomy, biomechanics, somatic nervous system, animal models, immune system, and human studies related to the autonomic nervous system. A relevant summary of each topic area and specific recommendations for future research in each area were the primary objectives of this project. Conclusions: The summaries of the literature for the 6 topic sections (anatomy, biomechanics, somatic nervous system, animal models, immune system, and human studies related to the autonomic nervous system) indicated that a significant body of basic science research evaluating chiropractic spinal adjusting has been completed and published since the 1997 basic science white paper. Much more basic science research in these fields needs to be accomplished, and the recommendations at the end of each topic section should help researchers, funding agencies, and other decision makers develop specific research priorities.