Biomechanics--review of approaches for performance training in spinal manipulation
Structural and chiropractic
J Electromyogr Kinesiol.2012 Oct;22(5):732-9.
J J Triano, M Descarreaux, C Dugas
Motor skills development is an inherent part of clinical training in health disciplines. The conscious use of educational theory to ground learning is receiving increasing attention across health care education. There are three distinct, yet overlapping, stages of motor skill learning; the cognitive, the integrative or associative, and the autonomous; in which a contextual framework for learning content may be structured. The learning is associated with a mapping of changes within the central nervous system by the interactive mechanisms of adaptation, use-dependent plasticity and operant reinforcement. Successful skill learning requires a sufficient amount of practice and the implementation of relevant feedback strategies in the form of knowledge of performance (KP) or knowledge of results (KR). There is a natural maturation of skills that may be accelerated by feedback. Several factors contribute to stronger skills development. "Mixture-of-experts" models systematically sequence tasks into logical blocks of theory, practice and student reflection on performance. Feedback should involve both KP and KR that compares performance to a tangible standard. Rehearsals should balance use of simulators and volunteer simulated patients to provide the full range of safe and effective learning opportunities prior to students accepting a role as care givers to the public in any clinical setting.