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Guidelines for the practice and performance of manipulation under anesthesia


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Structural and chiropractic

Chiropr Man Therap.2014 Feb 3;22(1):7.


R Gordon, E Cremata, C Hawk


Background: There are currently no widely accepted guidelines on standards for the practice of chiropractic or manual therapy manipulation under anesthesia, and the evidence base for this practice is composed primarily of lower-level evidence. The purpose of this project was to develop evidence-informed and consensus-based guidelines on spinal manipulation under anesthesia to address the gaps in the literature with respect to patient selection and treatment protocols. Methods: An expert consensus process was conducted from August-October 2013 using the Delphi method. Panelists were first provided with background literature, consisting of three review articles on manipulation under anesthesia. The Delphi rounds were conducted using the widely-used and well-established RAND-UCLA consensus process methodology to rate seed statements for their appropriateness. Consensus was determined to be reached if 80% of the 15 panelists rated a statement as appropriate. Consensus was reached on all 43 statements in two Delphi rounds. Results: The Delphi process was conducted from August-October 2013. Consensus was reached on recommendations related to all aspects of manipulation under anesthesia, including patient selection; diagnosis and establishing medical necessity; treatment and follow-up procedures; evaluation of response to treatment; safety practices; appropriate compensation considerations; and facilities, anesthesia and nursing standards. Conclusions: A high level of agreement was achieved in developing evidence-informed recommendations about the practice of chiropractic/manual therapy manipulation under anesthesia.

Publication Date: 

2014 Feb



Gordon, R., Cremata, E., Hawk, C. (2014) 'Guidelines for the practice and performance of manipulation under anesthesia', Chiropr Man Therap.2014 Feb 3;22(1):7.

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