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Learning spinal manipulation: A best-evidence synthesis of teaching methods


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Sistematic Review


Structural and chiropractic

J Chiropr Educ.2016 Oct;30(2):138-151.


B E Stainsby, M C S Clarke, J R Egonia


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different reported methods used to teach spinal manipulative therapy to chiropractic students. Methods: For this best-evidence literature synthesis, 5 electronic databases were searched from 1900 to 2015. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Results: Twenty articles were critically appraised, including 9 randomized clinical trials, 9 cohort studies, and 2 systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Eleven articles were accepted as scientifically admissible. The type of teaching method aids included a Thrust in Motion cervical manikin, instrumented cardiopulmonary reanimation manikin, padded contact with a load cell, instrumented treatment table with force sensor/transducer, and Dynadjust instrument. Conclusions: Several different methods exist in the literature for teaching spinal manipulative therapy techniques; however, future research in this developing area of chiropractic education is proposed. It is suggested that various teaching methods be included in the regular curricula of chiropractic colleges to aid in developing manipulation skills, efficiency, and knowledge of performance.

Publication Date: 

2016 Oct



Stainsby, EB., Clarke, SCM., Egonia, RJ. (2016) 'Learning spinal manipulation: A best-evidence synthesis of teaching methods', J Chiropr Educ.2016 Oct;30(2):138-151.

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