top of page

The Impact of Complementary and Integrative Medicine Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review


Full Text Link

Books and documents


Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2022 Apr 21.


Sonya Kim, Marianne H Mortera, Pey-Shan Wen, Karla L Thompson, Kristine Lundgren, William R Reed, Nicole Sasson, Sarah Towner Wright, Ariana Vora, Shilpa Krishnan, Justin Joseph, Patricia Heyn, Bridget S Chin


Objective: To examine the evidence levels, study characteristics, and outcomes of nonpharmacologic complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) interventions in rehabilitation for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Data sources: MEDLINE (OvidSP), PubMed (NLM), EMBASE (, CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (OvidSP), Cochrane Library (Wiley), and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases were evaluated using PRISMA guidelines. The protocol was registered in INPLASY (protocol registration: INPLASY202160071).

Data extraction: Quantitative studies published between 1992 and 2020 investigating the efficacy of CIM for individuals with TBI of any severity, age, and outcome were included. Special diets, herbal and dietary supplements, and counseling/psychological interventions were excluded, as were studies with mixed samples if TBI data could not be extracted. A 2-level review comprised title/abstract screening, followed by full-text assessment by 2 independent reviewers.

Data synthesis: In total, 90 studies were included, with 57 001 patients in total. This total includes 2 retrospective studies with 17 475 and 37 045 patients. Of the 90 studies, 18 (20%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The remainder included 20 quasi-experimental studies (2-group or 1-group pre/posttreatment comparison), 9 retrospective studies, 1 single-subject study design, 2 mixed-methods designs, and 40 case study/case reports. Guided by the American Academy of Neurology evidence levels, class II criteria were met by 61% of the RCTs. Included studies examined biofeedback/neurofeedback (40%), acupuncture (22%), yoga/tai chi (11%), meditation/mindfulness/relaxation (11%), and chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation (11%). The clinical outcomes evaluated across studies included physical impairments (62%), mental health (49%), cognitive impairments (39%), pain (31%), and activities of daily living/quality of life (28%). Additional descriptive statistics were summarized using narrative synthesis. Of the studies included for analyses, 97% reported overall positive benefits of CIM.

Conclusion: Rigorous and well experimentally designed studies (including RCTs) are needed to confirm the initial evidence supporting the use of CIM found in the existing literature.

Publication Date: 

2022 Apr



Kim, S., Mortera, HM., Wen, P., Thompson, LK., Lundgren, K., Reed, RW., Sasson, N., Wright, TS., Vora, A., Krishnan, S., Joseph, J., Heyn, P., Chin, SB. (2022) 'The Impact of Complementary and Integrative Medicine Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review ', J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2022 Apr 21.

Sponsored by 


Search    Explore    About    Join    Web Policy     Contact Us

Copyright © 2023 OsteoEvidence. All Rights Reserved.

bottom of page