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Chuang, F., Yang, T., Kuo, H. (2021) 'Botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain with hypertonic pelvic floor in women: Treatment techniques and results', Low Urin Tract Symptoms.2021 Jan;13(1):5-12.

Low Urin Tract Symptoms.2021 Jan;13(1):5-12.

Botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain with hypertonic pelvic floor in women: Treatment techniques and results

F Chuang, T Yang, H Kuo

Abstract:

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is an extremely bothersome condition which leads to major effects in women's everyday life. In addition to visceral sources of pain, pelvic floor dysfunction including myofascial pain and spasm on the pelvic floor muscles causing hypertonicity are causes often overlooked. Injecting botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) into hypertonic pelvic floor muscles may aid the relaxation of pelvic floor musculature. The muscles that are injected in CPP treatment include the obturator internus, levator ani (pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis), and coccygeus. Generally, injections can be performed tolerably with safety under conscious sedation combined with local anesthesia. Most practitioners perform BoNT-A injection of pelvic floor muscles using anatomical landmarks identified by manual palpation only. For the precise location of injection sites, some needle guidance techniques were proposed, including electromyography, electrical stimulation, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. Side effects of BoNT-A injection in CPP are rare and self-limiting. Because of the reversible nature of BoNT-A, reinjection appears to be necessary. Increasing proof points out that BoNT-A is a promising treatment option for CPP in women. We conducted a review of published literature in Pubmed, using chronic pelvic pain in women, hypertonic pelvic floor, and botulinum toxin as the keywords. This article aims to summarize the treatment techniques and results of BoNT-A injection for hypertonic pelvic floor in women with chronic pelvic pain.

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